This continent occupies the entire southern part of the supercontinent of the Americas, that’s why is called South America. It is surrounded by the Pacific Ocean from the west, by the Atlantic Ocean from the east and north, by the Caribbean Sea from the northwest and is connected with North America in the northeast part. An overland border between two continents stretches along the Panama-Colombian state boundary.
Totally there are 12 independent countries and 3 dependent territories in South America. The largest country by area and the most populated is Brazil, it occupies about the 50% of the total mainland area and more than 52% of the population live on its territory. The smallest independent state is Suriname, it is the only nation in this region, speaking Dutch as an official language.
As for travel, the most visited among the South American countries are Brazil, Argentina and Peru, the last one is the home of the region’s most famous tourist attraction Machu Picchu, the mysterious city of the Incas. (Source)
List of Countries in South America (Click a country to see related historical events):